Words Beginning with the Letter R -

 










Words Beginning with the Letter R

 

Rabbit

Rabbit flesh, soaked in water to remove strong flavours, makes excellent eating; a lemon helps make the flesh whiter. Ostend rabbit, bred specially for eating, is very good and has white flesh like chicken; wild rabbit, which went out of favour because of myxomatosis, is also tasty and still available. Rabbits are in season during the autumn and early winter, but may be bought all year round.

 

Radish

The common radish is a small red root with a strong pepper flavour, easily grown in the garden and used in salads or relishes. It may be round or elongated and is better if grown quickly. Black radish is another type, being a large, black tap root, which may be served raw in slices with aperi­tifs or included in crudités.

 

Ragoût

A meat such as beef, veal or mutton in a stew which gener­ally is brown, but may also be white.

 

Raisins

Large white grapes which have been dried and had their pips removed. Seedless raisins are of a different type and like sultanas, have no seeds at all. See also Malaga.

 

Ramekin or Ramequin

A small individual ovenproof case, made of glass or china, shaped like a soufflé dish; used for such dishes as cheese ramekins, individual cheese soufflés or for savouries.

 

Rare

A degree of cooking in grilling steak. Means underdone.

 

Rasher

The name given to slices of bacon (or raw ham) cut on a bacon slicing machine which has numbers to denote thick­ness: 3 and 4 are thin, 7 thick, etc.

 

Raspberry

Common soft fruit plentiful in Britain from midsummer to autumn, with distinctive flavour and colour. There are also white raspberries, but these are not as common or tasty. Raspberries are eaten and

cook­ed like strawberries.

 

Ratafia

Small, button-sized, almond ­flavoured macaroon mainly used with puddings and cream sweets. A liqueur flavoured with almond oil is also called ratafia.

 

Ratatouille

Tomatoes, aubergines, cour­gettes and sweet peppers cut up, fried in olive oil and then stewed gently with garlic until they become a rich, soft mass. Comes from the Provence region of France.

 

Ravigote

A sauce made by mixing hard boiled egg yolk with an oil and vinegar dressing, chopped parsley, tarragon, chervil, capers and chopped gherkins. Served with cold veal, calf's head or fish. Another version, to be served with hot dishes, is made by sharpening a béchamel or velouté sauce with vinegar or lemon juice and adding parsley, tarragon and chervil.

 

Ravioli

Small square envelopes of raw pasta enclosing savoury mince, or a mixture of cream cheese and spinach, which are first simmered in stock, then finished off in a rich sauce, usually tomato.

 

Réchauffé

Reheated food. Dishes, such as cottage pie, which are made to use up leftovers of cooked meat.

 

Red mullet [See Mullet]

 

Reduce

To thicken a gravy or sauce and thus concentrate its flavour, by boiling away some of the water content.

 

Réform

A sauce made by adding a julienne garnish of tongue, egg white, truffle, mushroom and gherkin to a poivrade. A number of dishes take their name from this sauce.

 

Refresh

The process of pouring a cup of cold water over foods that have been blanched and drained, either to set the colour of vegetables or to clean any scum from meat.

 

Relevé [See Remove]

 

Rémoulade

A sauce made by adding chopped tarragon, chervil, parsley, chopped gherkins and capers to a mayonnaise. Served with cold meats, fish and eggs.

 

Remove or Relevé

A term, no longer used, for the main course of a Victorian or Edwardian dinner which generally consisted of a joint, roasted, braised or boiled, with a vegetable and potatoes. See also Menu.

 

Render

The process of obtaining dripping from fat, either by putting the fat in a roasting tin in a hot oven, or by boiling it in a small quantity of water.

 

Rennet

A substance used for making junket by coagulating milk. It is obtained from the stomach of a sucking calf. Rennet for household purposes can be bought in a supermarket, but a special type for cheese making is sold only by dairy supply companies.

 

Rhubarb

A common plant in Britain whose leaves are poisonous but whose stalks, simmered in syrup, make an excellent des­sert or tart filling. Originally grown for medicinal uses. The best rhubarb is that which has been forced and is thus thinner and more delicate.

 

Rice

The grain of a type of grass which requires a lot of moisture, particularly in the ground and thus thrives in sub-tropical cli­mates. The main types are:

Patna: For curries, pilaffs, etc., has a long, thin grain.

Spanish Jap or Java: For milk puddings and risottos, has a short, thick grain.

Italian: For risottos, large and thick white grains.

Carolina: For creams, milk pud­dings, medium thick grain.

Ground rice: Consists of rice ground to a medium fine powder and generally is used for thick­ening, and in cakes and pud­dings.

Wild rice: Is a different sort of plant, regarded as a luxury and imported into Britain from the United States.

 

Ricotta

A curd cheese made in Italy.

 

Rillettes

A French dish made by shred­ding fat and lean pork which has been fried in pork fat with herbs and seasoning, then pounding it into a paste. Gen­erally made in earthenware pots and eaten cold, like a pâté, with bread and butter. Rillettes de porc also may be made from the small intestine of the pig, like chitterlings.

 

Risotto

A rice dish, popular in Italy, of which there are numerous forms depending on what is added; the dish is always finished off with cheese. Risotto milanese, for instance, has bone marrow and mushrooms added to the rice, which is cooked by simmering gently in stock; Ris­otto napolitana is made by adding tomatoes.

 

Rissole

A dish made with cold cooked meat, which is minced, made into turnovers with flaky pastry, possibly dipped in egg and breadcrumbs or crushed vermi­celli and deep fried. See also Croquette.

 

Rissoler

To brown slowly in fat.

 

Roast

In elaborate menus the roast is the dish that follows the sorbet and comes before the entremêts. Nowadays it is usually meat, but may also be poultry or game.

 

Roasting

A method of cooking food, particularly meat, by radiant heat; to be done properly meat should be roasted on a spit, gas or electric, or over an open fire and should be basted frequently.

 

Robert

A sauce with a piquant flavour to go with pork, steak or kidneys. Made by adding mustard and white wine to a demiglace base.

 

Rock salmon

A fish and chip shop favourite, also known as rock eel or cat fish; flesh is firm with a slightly pink tinge.

 

Rock salt [See Salt]

 

Röd Gröd

A dessert made in Denmark from red currants or raspberries and sago (sometimes used as a soup). Polish or Russian Kissel, a similar dish, has currants and black cherries added to the red fruit and is thickened with arrowroot; can also serve as either sweet or soup.

 

Roe

Name given to the reproductive glands of a fish, soft roe or milt in the male or hard roe in the female.

 

Roll-mop

A boned herring, rolled round an onion slice, secured with a toothpick and pickled in spiced vinegar.

 

Roly-poly

A pudding made in the shape of a Swiss roll with suet crust spread with golden syrup or jam, and either baked or boiled.

 

Roquefort

A blue-veined cheese from the small town of the same name in the Aveyron region of France, made from ewe's milk and mouldy breadcrumbs. The limestone caves in which it matures are said to help give it its famous flavour.

 

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

A bush with aromatic leaves and pale blue flowers. As a culinary herb it should be used in the spray or a few of the needle-like leaves can be stripped from the stem and used whole. A few cooked whole with sauté potatoes give a delicious flavour; or place a spray in the roasting tin when cooking chicken or lamb in the oven.

 

Rose-water

An essence obtained from rose leaves, once popular for flavouring creams, sponge cakes, etc., but nowadays mostly used in toilet preparations. Sold by chemists.

 

Rouennaise

Pertaining to the Rouen district of France. Rouennaise sauce consists of meat glaze, jellied stock and red wine made into a rich, concentrated gravy. Duck rouennaise, a speciality of the area, is roasted lightly and the blood extracted from the carcass by pressing; this is added to the duck liver, beurre manié, stock and red wine to make the sauce.

 

Roux

A liaison made with butter and flour and used in velouté, béchamel and brown sauces; liquids will blend more easily with the roux if it is made with more butter than flour.

 

Royale

A garnish made by steaming cream with egg yolk (for yellow royale) or egg white (for white royale) until firm, then cutting the resulting custard into strips.

 

Rum

A spirit distilled from the by-products of making sugar from cane; mostly imported into Britain from the West Indies.

 

Rusk

Bread dough of light texture, fashioned into fingers or other shapes and baked crisp right through. Sold under various trade names. See Zwieback.

 

Russe (à la)

Russian style, usually denoting sour cream or beetroot or both as ingredients. A salad of apple, potato, beetroot, cucumber and peas mixed with fish or meat and given a coating of mayonnaise is called Russian salad. See also Charlotte Russe.

 

Rust

The crusty exterior of ham or bacon on the side opposite the rind. This usually has an unpleasantly strong flavour and should be discarded.

 

Rye

An important cereal akin to barley or wheat, used widely in Continental Europe and other parts of the world but not extensively cultivated in Britain. Mostly used for bread, from the black to lighter varieties and in production of rye whisky.